Somali government forces responded to a handful of largely peaceful demonstrations with lethal force. Federal and regional authorities, particularly in Somaliland, continued to restrict free expression and media freedoms, including by harassing and arbitrarily detaining journalists and perceived critics, and temporarily shutting down media outlets. The competition between UAE and Qatar over political and economic dominance in Somalia continued to exacerbate intra-Somalia tensions, both between Mogadishu and federal states, and with Somaliland. The Centre provides training for young displaced Somali men and women in construction, engineering and plumbing. Al-Shabaab remains one of Somalia’s most powerful political and military actors. Existing efforts to strengthen the SNA and other official forces are not producing adequate numbers of sufficiently competent Somali national soldiers. In addition to reviewing the relevant existing literature, this study is principally based on fieldwork conducted in Mogadishu and Baidoa, Somalia, in January 2020. The cases of two girls who were gang raped by civilians and died received significant public attention. Ongoing armed conflict, insecurity, lack of state protection, and recurring humanitarian crises exposed Somali civilians to serious abuse. In addition, the regions of Somaliland and Puntland have unilaterally declared autonomy. The second section of the study also reviews various types of militia groups in Somalia, including clan-based forces, contract militias, federal member state paramilitary darwish and militias sponsored by external actors. All Somali parties to the conflict commited serious abuses against children, including killings, maiming, and the recruitment and use of child soldiers. COVID-Induced Khat Shortage Adds to Health Problems in Somalia More Somali men buy khat stimulant leaves at an open air market in Hodan district of Mogadishu, Somalia June 22, 2020. However, Somalia’s State-aligned militia groups are also an underlying source of insecurity, violent contestation, abusive rule, impunity and pernicious outside manipulation. Militia groups have historically been a defining feature of Somalia’s conflict landscape, especially since the ongoing civil war began three decades ago. Efforts have been made to combat this problem, but as of now, they have proved to be relatively ineffective. Violence in Somalia first grabbed the attention of Americans in 1993 when 19 U.S. soldiers were killed while supporting a United Nations mission in the Battle of Mogadishu. Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia (S/2017/1109) Source. These individuals  faced serious abuses, including sexual violence, forced evictions, and limited access to basic needs such as food and water. Integrating militias into formal security forces; Putting them on payroll and providing them with non-lethal assistance without integrating them into formal forces; Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR); Addressing local conflicts as an indirect approach to eliminating the impetus for militias. According to multiple media reports, Aisha was raped, mutilated, and strangled to death. State-aligned militias help to offset the weakness of Somalia’s official security forces, produce greater motivation and better intelligence and enhance bonds with local communities, perhaps even suppressing crime and intraclan violence. UN SC; Published 30 Aug 2018. Somalia removes prime minister in no-confidence vote 170 of 178 MPs back motion against Hassan Ali Khaire for failing to move towards democratic elections Published: 25 Jul 2020 A fair chance in life begins with a strong, healthy start. The US military must not wash its hands of international legal obligations towards civilian victims of US air strikes in Somalia, Amnesty International said, following a Pentagon announcement that troops … Intensified rivalries between Somalia’s federal Government and the federal member states further hamper the deployment and effectiveness of the SNA. A poorly concluded defeat of al-Shabaab could actually plunge the country back into open fighting as the remaining militias compete for power. The UN documented over 100 incidents of sexual violence against girls. In September and October, authorities in Puntland repeatedly harassed journalists at Daljir Radio after the station reported on alleged arbitrary arrests and mistreatment of detainees, including the alleged death in custody of one detainee as a result of mistreatment, by Puntland security forces. The government appointed individuals implicated in serious human rights abuses to high-level positions. The study also builds on the author’s previous fieldwork in Somalia in March 2015 and December 2017.5 To protect the safety of interlocutors and to encourage them to speak honestly and openly, all interviews during this and previous fieldwork trips are reported without the use of names. Malaria - Overview How to Protect Yourself Against Malaria World Malaria Risk Chart. The Somali penal code, currently being revised, classifies sexual violence as an “offence against modesty and sexual honor” rather than as a violation of bodily integrity; it also punishes same-sex intercourse. As a result of more than 25 years of civil unrest, Somalia’s governance structures have fallen apart, and militias control different parts of the country. 30 Nov 2020 Cale Salih (Tokyo: United Nations University, 2018). To understand how these militias form and operate, the study provides a detailed portrait of several prototypical militiagroups — namely, Macawiisleey, Ahlu Sunna Wal Jama’a, the South-West Special Police, Mukhtar Robow’s militias, Ahmed Madobe’s militias (the Jubbaland State Forces), the PMPF and the PSF. Communities create or join such groups as a primary response to conditions of insecurity, vulnerability and contestation. On January 12, poet Abdirahman Ibrahim Adan (known as "Abdirahman Abees") was arbitrarily arrested and charged with “insulting the police” after he highlighted various due process abuses in Somaliland. November 2020. The Somaliland government severely restricted reporting and free expression on issues deemed controversial or overly critical of the authorities. The UN explicitly linked the humanitarian situation to climate change, among other factors. Although Somalia has a low HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of 0.7%, about 34,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009 with about 1600 deaths recorded within the same year. Last modified on Thu 15 Oct 2020 09.21 EDT More than 2 million people could face starvation by the end of the summer, unless there are urgent efforts to respond to the drought in Somalia . Security forces, notably police forces, responded with lethal force, killing at least 15 protesters and injuring many others between December 13 and 15, according to the UN. The third section of the study describes the lack of a consistent policy towards militia groups in Somalia and the increasing tendency of various international actors to embrace and bolster militias. The study then assesses the effectiveness and shortcomings of existing responses to militias in Somalia, providing recommendations to national actors, policymakers and practitioners. This study analyses the pros and cons of relying on militias for security provision and counter-terrorism objectives in Somalia. The UN and Norwegian Refugee Council also reported that over 300,000 people had been newly displaced as of September. The humanitarian crisis in the country continued due to the ongoing conflict, violence, and increasingly frequent drought. The newspaper was accused of spreading misinformation after it reported on the building of a new presidential palace in Hargeisa. This strategy based on auxiliary forces competes with ongoing efforts to bolster the State-building effort, including training of the official Somalinational forces (which include the national military, police and intelligence agencies), expanding a defectors’ programme for al- Shabaab and efforts to integrate at least some of demobilized militias into the official security sector. It also describes the pro-militia arguments made by Somali politicians, government officials, clan elders and international actors. Politics | December 11th 2020 Covid-19 exacerbates risk of civil unrest in Africa in 2021 The adverse effects of Covid-19 will linger in 2021, and another wave of civil unrest could regain momentum. He was acquitted and released on February 25. International support and attention focused on building Somalia’s security sector, improving relations between federal and state authorities, and regional electoral processes. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Somalis fleeing from drought in the Lower and Middle Shabelle regions of the country carry their belongings as they reach a makeshift camp for displaced persons in the Daynile neighborhood on the outskirts of the capital Mogadishu on May 18, 2019. 19 May 2020: From January to June 2017 - 28,757 Somali refugees from Kenya were voluntarily repatriated to Somalia by UNHCR as part of its programme and benefited from an enhanced return package. Somalia is not graded in the 2020 Index because of the continuing unavailability of relevant comparable statistics on all facets of the economy. It reviews current and potential policies for reducing the scale and negative effects of the militias, identifying the feasibility and likely effectiveness of each. CCCM partners in Somalia play a critical role in administering site­‐level coordination which feeds up to the national level. 15 Sep 2017 As part of its continuing efforts to combat al-Shabaab, the international community has partnered with Somalia’s national Government to build Somalia’s official armed and law enforcement forces and civilian institutions of governance, while advancing a plan to devolve power to the country’s states (known as federal member states). Attention to ensuring accountability for abuses remained minimal. Humanitarian agencies face serious access challenges due to insecurity, targeted attacks on aid workers, generalized violence, and restrictions imposed by parties to the conflict. In 2018, the UN documented more cases of children recruited and used as soldiers in Somalia than in any other country in the world. There was a significant  number of arbitrary arrests of journalists and temporary closure of media outlets. The ban on Foore was lifted in August. The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Somalia on 16 March 2020 when the first case was confirmed in Mogadishu. Relations between the federal government and the federal member states deteriorated, diverting attention from needed reforms and on occasion resulting in abuses. In August, six UN Security Council member states blocked a bid by Kenya to impose additional counterterrorism sanctions on Al-Shabab that could have jeopardized the delivery of humanitarian aid. The government also arbitrarily arrested perceived government critics. For the Government, federal member states and international actors, militias are a favored tool against al-Shabaab, but their utility extends far beyond that fight. The recommendations focus on the following areas: In addition to reviewing the relevant existing literature, this study is principally based on fieldwork conducted in Mogadishu and Baidoa, Somalia, in January 2020. The second part of the study analyses the structural and political drivers of militia formation and persistence in Somalia. The assessed policies include: The final section of the study, on recommendations, builds on the analysis of current responses and offers concrete steps that would enable the Somali Government and international partners to limit the risks posed by militias while also benefiting from their unique capacities. Al-Shabab conducted targeted and indiscriminate attacks against civilians and civilian infrastructure using improvised explosive devices (IEDs), suicide bombings, and shelling, as well as assassinations, particularly in Mogadishu and Lower Shabelle, which resulted in over 750 civilian deaths and injuries, according to the UN. They give rise to and allow the entrenchment of powerful militant groups such as the Al-Qaida- supporting, jihadist Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, commonly referred to as al-Shabaab. In January, when Somalia became a member of the UN Human Rights Council, the federal government expelled the UN head in Somalia, Nicholas Haysom, pointing to a letter in which he had raised human rights concerns around government actions in Baidoa. It declared that  2.1 million Somalis face acute food insecurity, as of late September, many of them children and internally displaced. Following the December 2018 police violence in Baidoa, key international partners—the European Union, the United Kingdom and Germany—temporarily suspended support to police in the South West State. 35.26 (2020) Energy Imports Net ... Find relevant data on energy production, total primary energy supply, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions for Somalia on IndexMundi Homepage. Part of the risk of greater foreign intervention in Somalia arises from intensified regional and geopolitical rivalries, which shape local contestations in Somalia — and are also shaped by those local dynamics. Ongoing armed conflict, insecurity, lack of state protection, and recurring humanitarian crises exposed Somali civilians to serious abuse. Al-Shabab  executed after unfair trials individuals it accused of working or spying for the government and foreign forces, with media reporting an uptick in executions mid-year; and extorted “taxes” through threats. But eight years later, many of these efforts have not yet delivered results. Despite USD $1 billion of international financial assistance and international training since 2012, the Somali National Army (SNA) continues to lack the gamut of fighting capacities, relying instead on international forces to wrest territory from al- Shabaab, or even to keep the group from openly retaking other large territories, including majorcities. Al-Shabab continues to prohibit many nongovernmental organizations and all UN agencies from working in areas under its control, blockading some government-controlled towns. World. Ethiopia and Somalia have not faced an infestation on this scale for 25 years, while Kenya has not seen a locust threat this size for 70 years, the FAO said earlier this week. This portion of the study explains the international community’s dilemmas in deciding how to deal with these newly strengthened forces. While Somali authorities seldom investigate cases of killings or attacks on journalists, a Somali media organization reported that the military court in Mogadishu in absentia sentenced to five years a police officer for the July 2018 killing of cameraman Abdirizak Kasim Iman. After the Somali government expelled special representative of the secretary-general Haysom, the UN suspended its monthly reporting on human rights issues. During that fieldwork, the author conducted 51 interviews with current and former officials of the Somali Government and the federal member states, current and former officers of Somalia’s national security forces, Somali politicians, business leaders, representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), Somali clan elders, United Nations officials, international advisors to the Somali Government and international diplomats. The United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) recorded a total of 1,154 civilian casualties by mid-November. The states can use the militias as a bargaining tool in their negotiations with Mogadishu over power distribution. 4 in 100 Somali children die during the first month of life, 8 in 100 before their first birthday, and 1 in 8 before they turn five. Somalia General Health Risks: Malaria Malaria is transmitted by the night-time - dusk to dawn - biting female Anopheles mosquito. Two journalists, Mohamed Sahal Omar and Somali-Canadian Hodan Nalayeh, were killed in a July 12 Al-Shabab attack on a hotel in the southern port city of Kismayo. At the beginning of 2020, militias are once again at the forefront of a major policy debate about the strategy for State-building and security in Somalia. The US military increasingly conducted airstrikes in Somalia and joint military operations against Al-Shabab. Guidance for the Brookings community and the public on our response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) », Learn more from Brookings scholars about the global response to coronavirus (COVID-19) ». Hybrid conflict, hybrid peace: How militias and paramilitary groups shape post-conflict transitions, Center for Security, Strategy, and Technology, Russia, China, and the risks of war: My conversation with General Mark Milley, Facing elections and a potential US troop withdrawal, risks to Somalia’s security abound, Nuclear Weapons and American Grand Strategy, Evolving Human Security Challenges in the Atlantic Space, https://i.unu.edu/media/cpr.unu.edu/ attachment/3129/4-LoP-Somalia-final.pdf, 2020 appears to be a good year for counterterrorism, Reflections on the Christchurch commission report. The situation in Somalia is putting growing pressures on both the Somali Government and the international community to scale up the use of such militias. This trend continued in 2019 as Al-Shabab pursued an aggressive child recruitment campaign with retaliation against communities refusing to hand over children. The following introduction is an excerpt from the case study, "The problem with militias in Somalia: Almost everyone wants them despite their dangers," produced by Vanda Felbab-Brown for the United Nations University report, "Hybrid conflict, hybrid peace: How militias and paramilitary groups shape post-conflict transitions," of which Adam Day was the project lead. If existing joint efforts fail to weaken al-Shabaab’s military, political and economic power, intensified bilateral interventions such as US air strikes and enlarged deployments of Ethiopian and Kenyan forces grow more likely. Steps should be taken to hold accountable the most egregiously behaving militias. According to the same assessment, almost 6.2million people across Somalia are projected to be in crisis and emergency (IPC Phases 3 and 4) acute food insecurity crisis – with IDPs accounting for over 70 per cent of the total. Typhoid fever, dengue fever, malaria, Rift valley fever, Rabies, Schistosomiasis, protozoal and bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, etc. According to humanitarian agencies, over 173,255 people had been evicted, most forcibly, by August 2019, primarily in Mogadishu. At time of writing, the court’s mandate remained unclear, and no juvenile facilities set up. If this issue is not acknowledged and dealt with sooner rather than later, the country could face an even direr situation than it currently is in. The federal government, regional authorities, notably in Puntland and Jubaland, and Al-Shabab continued to intimidate, harass and attack journalists. The message from al-Shabab only adds to the government's concerns, especially as it could oppose medical help from international aid agencies just as it … Interview with the author, Baidoa, January 2020. Positively, Somalia ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and produced its first report for the Committee on the Rights of the Child. In these ways, they exacerbate localconflicts, increase grievances and enable al- Shabaab’s political entrenchment in parts of the country. Risk is present throughout the country, including urban areas, risk present at all altitudes. Somalia is marauded with a number of domestic problems including poverty, lack of basic services, national debt, and security issues to name a few, however of all of these problems, the most pressing is the lack of access to clean water that the nation faces. Poor rains and extended drought over multiple seasons have had a major impact on rural livelihoods and food security in Somalia, pushing the country to the brink of famine, just five years after the crisis of 2011 that claimed the lives of over a quarter of a million people.. Over half of the country’s population -- 6.7 million people –are now acutely food insecure (IPC 2,3 and 4). At the same time, militias may be the best hedge against even more direct intervention by outside actors. Somalia expels Kenyan envoy in row over alleged poll interference Somali gov’t accuses Kenya of interfering in electoral process in one of Somalia’s five semi-autonomous states. Somalia. The decision to double down on pro-Government militias to address the threats posed by al- Shabaab thus risks producing new drivers of conflict while perpetuating deeply rooted intercommunal tensions. Military operations by Somali government forces, militia, AU and other foreign troops, notably against Al-Shabab, resulted in civilian deaths and … According to media reports and the UN, between December 31, 2018, and early November, 2019, the government had carried out at least 16 executions, all for alleged terrorism-related offenses. It details the evolution, effectiveness and effects on stabilization efforts of several militia groups — Macawiisleey, Ahlu SunnaWal Jama’a, South-West Special Police, Mukhtar Robow’s militias, Ahmed Madobe’s militias (the Jubbaland State Forces), the Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) and the Puntland Security Force (PSF). Military courts continue to try defendants in a broad range of cases, including for terrorism-related offenses, in proceedings that violate fair trial standards. Analysis - The African Union Peace and Security Council's (PSC) response to emerging crises in 2020 was marginal. COVID-induced khat shortage adds to health problems in Somalia Friday July 24, 2020 A doctor reviews a patient at the Habeeb Mental health hospital where they deal with khat addiction in Waberi district of Mogadishu, Somalia June 23, 2020. The government failed to put in place juvenile justice measures, notably for children accused of Al-Shabab-related crimes. If remittances to Somalia do diminish significantly and the Hajj pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia is cancelled, if food imports remain restricted and prices start to rise, pressure will quickly mount. Interview with the author, Mogadishu, January 2020. In late May, the police detained for three days Ali Adan Munim, reporter at the private Goobjoog media outlet, citing Facebook posts in which Ali criticized National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) treatment of detainees and had said he had obtained copies of national exams. These dynamics take place in a fraught political context: tensions have risen between the Government and the federal member states, and there is broader geopolitical and regional competition for influence in Somalia. Deeply entrenched in the political economy of Somalia, militias have strong tendencies to appropriate political authority, strengthen authoritarian forms of rule, monopolize local economies and engage in other mafia-like economic and political activities. The full case study can be found here. 2018-2020 1. Ahead of Dec parliamentary elections and Feb 2021 presidential vote, federal govt early Nov appointed federal electoral commission, dispute…. Three men were sentenced to death under Puntland’s 2016 Sexual Offences Act, which includes death penalty sentences for “aggravated” cases of rape. United Nations officials and international diplomats, interviews with the author, Mogadishu, January 2020. In April, AFRICOM acknowledged two civilian casualties in an April 2018 strike, citing internal reporting errors. Unfortunately, many children in Somalia are still deprived of this. UNICEF Somalia Amina, 24, is bringing sustainable solar energy to her community and challenging stereotypes. Media and NGOs documented several civilian casualties. The federal Sexual Offences Bill has been submitted before parliament, but had yet to be debated at time of writing. Avoiding or minimizing the creation of new militia groups; Appropriate vetting of militias prior to integration into the Somali official forces; Steps to end impunity for human rights violations; Provision of human rights and civics training; Establishment of a salary system for militia members integrated into the Somali national forces; Creation of an international payroll for some militias (for example, darwish) conditioned on a serious vetting process for human rights abuses; Developing a strategy for al- Shabaab that prioritizes support to local conflict resolution within communities and across clans. For instance, the federal member states — which carefully guard their autonomy, despite the existence of a formally agreed Somali national security infrastructure framework — see the militias as a crucial security hedge against the power of Mogadishu, Somalia’s capital. Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia (S/2018/800) Source. December 7, 2020 • Press Release US must not abandon civilian victims of its air strikes in Somalia after troop withdrawal. Sixty-seven percent of this figure is due to indiscriminate and targeted attacks, the majority improvised explosive devices (IEDs) attacks, by the Islamist armed group Al-Shabab. Somalia. Somalia has been in arrears to the IMF for over three decades—the ... the IMF has welcomed Somalis’ intention to begin making payments on arrears starting in 2020 … Somalia have high rates of stunting. 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