If we look at the places of heaviest colonial invasion, so those would be the South and also New England, in the West, what you see are pretty intense Spanish colonization of New Mexico. But what happens pretty quickly is that, by the late 1600s, Flemish gunsmiths have developed a different kind of firearm called the matchlock that is much more efficient, much lighter, very deadly, very accurate. Meaning people who are engaging in long-term colonial strategies of trying to displace or replace Native people, pushing Native people out. Maybe that’s a good place to pick up my conversation with her. Christina Snyder is the McCabe Greer professor of the American Civil War Era at Penn State University. They have a kind of ambivalent relationship to slavery at first, but eventually they too become involved in the African and the Indian slave trade. They feel like if they don’t get access to firearms, that they themselves will become victims of either European colonizers or more powerful Native neighbors. They are trying to preserve and as a result of that, it becomes sort of a new starting point in the difficult choices that they are making in what to do and what not to do vis-à-vis engaging with Europeans and also engaging with other nations. There were likely between five and 10 million people living in what’s now the U.S. They’re speaking 300 different languages. But what these things have in common, even though they’re coming out of these very different colonial contexts, is that Native societies are reaching a saturation point where there are settler colonial societies. However, Lewis and Clark did not "discover" anything. They believe that the only way to really gain a foothold in this global market to gain access to firearms is to engage in the Indian slave trade. That really stands out. So you can see both the economic pull of this, but also that desire for security, in a really violent and changing world. “Wakanda forever” is a catchy phrase, but it also reflects an idea that is central to understanding the evolution of American slavery. Partially to work them on their own plantations, but also for deportation. All of the other remaining settlers and enslaved people are forced into fortified Charleston for most of the remainder of the war. You're encouraged to search its portal for more. That there existed in the 21st century, an African nation that had been untouched by the scourge of transatlantic slavery and the ravages of European colonialism, and as a result, had developed technological capabilities far in advance of anything that existed in the Western world. Their trajectories were altered forever. Indiana Native American Heritage Month (November) American Indians in … In this way, they can see the multifacetedness of the war itself and they can see both what leads up to it and how it then reverberates into other historical events that come after. To compensate for that loss to your people, it was necessary to enact justice. Earlier this month, Teaching Tolerance expanded those recommendations into a first-of-its-kind framework for introducing the subject to elementary students. But what we need to do with this new research is to realize that slavery, and the warfare that accompanied it, contributed significantly to Indigenous mortality in that early colonial period. In early December 2016, Teaching Tolerance contracted with Survey USA, a highly rated national polling firm, to conduct an online survey of 1,000 American high school seniors. It often translates as “one who is owned.”. This podcast provides a detailed look at how to teach important aspects of the history of American slavery. Meredith McCoy: If you liked what you heard today, please share it with your friends and colleagues and then let us know what you thought. Compiled - The Center for Racial Justice in Education Teaching Approaches. One is that that person could be executed as vengeance for the death of a loved one. Because what happened around 1700, basically the decade between 1700 and 1710, there’re just repeated raids against the Florida mission system by English traders and allied Indian warriors. Furthermore, the Teaching Tolerance writer chided Americans for worrying about the reputational damage done to Sandmann. Again, well if we had to sum up their ideas about captivity, one is that it’s not racial, it’s really more about kinship and social fabric. Out of these, especially in the early colonial period, the Spanish are really the most important because they’re the first colonizers and partially because other colonizers look at their experiences as they form their own colonial policies. This doctrine of discovery is basically a legal notion that, supported by the Catholic Church, that decrees that only Catholic powers should colonize North America, and that essentially Indigenous people only had use rights. So there is this kind of arms race that fuels a desire for trade with Europeans and what do Europeans want above all else from Native people? Indian country today is still being colonized. But for the region as a whole, you know, it does really turn away from the Indian slave trade. But taking captives as a byproduct of war is pretty common in Native North America. It starts people thinking about the lives of African Indigenous people on their own terms. Often the version of enslavement that we’re expected to teach is sort of fixed in time as though there is one version of enslavement and that everyone who was enslaved experienced it in a certain way. So I think it’s really important that teachers take a minute with their students to think about things like the doctrine of discovery, because it does open all of these other temporally rippling issues that they can then engage with their students. We always appreciate your feedback. In that sense it’s taking a life and transforming it. They are certainly existing within a context but they are also responding to the moment and they are thinking about their futures and responding accordingly. What happens is that these traders, in order to satisfy those debts, start to kidnap Yamasees or people that the Yamasees wanted to adopt, so that is captives who had maybe been taken from elsewhere, but that the Yamasees want to incorporate into their own society. Black Twitter was on fire. I’m so excited to be here with you. So, again, that’s a germ of an idea that becomes really explosive in the context of colonialism. Christina Snyder: They’re really two ways in which Europeans begin to trade in Indigenous slaves. Meredith McCoy: So much of what we’re asked to teach as teachers is divided into historical periods. Teaching Tolerance provides free resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Sarah mentioned that these kinds of activities are really useful and important for students because it helps them see the conflict as not just an isolated event. Basically, in the context of our classrooms, we can think about different forms of colonialism. Outside of Native American circles, the expedition is almost universally called the "Corps of Discovery." Meredith McCoy: Thanks to Doctor Snyder for sharing her insights with us. This podcast is a resource for navigating those challenges so teachers and students can develop a deeper understanding of the history and legacy of American slavery. Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Corps Member Summit. It’s not completely destroyed, but tens of thousands of people are either killed or displaced into slavery. They started on Good Friday of 1715 and they do it by executing South Carolina’s Indian agent, Thomas Nairne, who had actually accompanied some of those raids against the Florida missions. One thing that we do know is that labor is only one part of this equation. In both instances, I’m really struck by this idea of Indigenous populations, whether they are Indigenous nations here, African people on the continent of Africa, are in a sense saying, “Okay, in what ways can we incorporate these new people into our existing way of life?”. For example, the mission system would be one form of colonialism that has to do with converting Indigenous people and assimilating them into a Europeanized, Christianized lifestyle. Hasan K. Jeffries: Well, let’s take a listen. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center ©1991-2020. But by the period that we’re talking about with the slave trade, it’s very likely that Indigenous peoples in the Southeast had experienced a 70 percent population loss from just 150 years before. Unfortunately for the Yamasees, that protection did not include arming them. So this ripples out into understandings of enslavement and indigenous enslavement, but it also affects everything else about how we think about Indigenous rights within the settler state that is currently the United States. Build a Learning Plan. To understand this, we really have to go back to the fact that for a long time, Indigenous people had taken war captives. The British really dominate parts of the Eastern Seaboard by then. One of these moments that she turned to is the Yamasee War. While many Native people are bought, sold and live their lives on South Carolina plantations, many more are actually deported and exported for sale on the global market. If we don’t understand that relationship, I don’t think our students will understand the impact that slavery and these colonies will have on Indigenous people going forward. European colonies, like Virginia and South Carolina, New England, even in New Mexico, they’re beginning to be strongholds of European settlement and pushing out Native people. This podcast was produced by Shea Shackelford with production assistance from Russell Gragg and content support from Gabriel Smith. So the metaphor here is thinking about when you drop a wineglass, for example, that the shards radiate out very far from the site of the initial impact. To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. A Culturally Responsive Approach to Discussing Thanksgiving in The Classroom - Linday Barrett; Decolonizing Thanksgiving: A Toolkit for Combatting Racism in Schools - Lindsey Passenger Wieck; Teaching about Thanksgiving - LearnNC (UNC School … So Native people are essentially being kidnapped and sold as slaves in Europe, in the Caribbean. The way that it plays out in the Southeast is that Charleston becomes the most important trade port. The Yamasee War is such an important historical pivot. Christina Snyder: One thing that we have to understand first is that Native North America is incredibly diverse on the eve of colonization. The Native American perspective "Young children's conceptions of Native Americans often develop out of media portrayals and classroom role playing of the events of the First Thanksgiving. So Native people become consumers in this global market. They can explode and kill someone. Where is it that you chose to begin this discussion? 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